Organisation of road safety
The United States uses a “federalism” approach that divides the powers of government between the national (federal) government and state and local governments. Under federalism, each level of
government has sovereignty in some areas and shares powers in others. At the national level, Congress passes the laws and assigns the funding that provides the overall structure for USDOT to
carry out its safety mission.
However, most traffic safety laws and policies are enacted and developed at the State level. For example, each of the 50 States in the U.S. has the authority to set its own speed limit, distracted driving, or seatbelt use law.
Congress can influence the States by providing incentive grants if they enact certain laws that have been proven effective or penalties if they do not. It can also use performance results as eligibility
criteria for grants in some cases.
USDOT implements the grant programmes and provides guidance to the States on developing effective strategies that address their particular traffic safety challenges.
Within USDOT, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has the lead role in reducing traffic crashes and fatalities.
In FY 2010, the Department of Transportation designated reducing roadway fatalities as one of its high-priority performance goals. Three agencies, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), are working together to address multiple dimensions of roadway safety.
Road safety strategy for 2011-2020
The number one priority of the Department of Transportation (USDOT) remains safety.
To align the programme and policy actions needed to meet key challenges most effectively, USDOT has established four fatality sub measures – on passenger vehicles, non-occupants, motorcycle riders,
and large-truck- bus-related fatalities – which represent the breadth of all highway users. The purposes of this approach are to more closely examine the fatality rates of the different segments of
highway users, focus the energy and resources involved and develop new strategies to combat sub measure trends.
While the USDOT has developed sub measures for programmatic effectiveness, the overall fatality rate goal continues to be primary measure. This was modified in 2009 to take into account the recent
declines in the frequency of fatal motor vehicle crashes and to set more ambitious targets. The overall fatality rate goal for 2012 had a target of 1.05.
With respect to measurement of the performance of the Department’s Safety Priority, the targets for the USDOT include, in addition to an overall fatality rate measure, four sub measures to better identify trends within each group. Each measure is a rate that combines the number of fatalities and an exposure measure for that group:
• non-occupant fatality rates
• passenger vehicle fatality rate (fatalities / veh-miles traveled)
• large truck fatality rate (fatalities / veh-miles traveled)
• motorcycle fatality rate (fatalities / number of registered vehicles)
The fatality rates are forecasted through statistical methods for a number of years into the future in order to guide a plan of action for safety countermeasures. These forecasted rates use historical data
combined with an evaluation of the existing countermeasures, trend in data, and other societal factors that may affect the fatality rates in the future.
Each year, the USDOT calculates the actual fatality rates for the overall target and each sub measure.
This is compared to the target set in previous years to determine whether the Department met its goal.
USDOT programmes are then reviewed in concert with the economic conditions, the environment, and other factors to better understand the rates and the status of road safety.
The DOT currently has performance targets set through 2014 for the overall fatality rate and NHTSA and FMCSA have performance targets for each of the four sub measures. For year 2014, DOT’s
overall motor vehicle crash fatality rate target is 1.02 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled.
The sub measure targets for 2014 are 0.16 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for the non-occupant fatality rate, 63 fatalities per 100 000 registrations for the motorcyclist fatality rate,
0.82 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for the passenger vehicle fatality rate, and the large truck and bus fatality rate for 2014 is 0.114 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled.
Monitoring With the recent increase in the number of motor vehicle crash fatalities, the fatality rate for 2012 was 1.14 and the target was not reached.
If you’ve ever left home without your phone, you know that feeling of nakedness-slash-terror that comes with realizing you don’t have it with you. With our ever-increasing reliance on mobile devices, it’s no wonder you feel vulnerable in the absence of your phone. Apple has given us more reasons to remember our phones with a slew of safety apps available for the iPhone 6 that can turn your phone into a practical rescue device.
Your child falls ill one night while vacationing far from home. Phoning your pediatrician won’t do any good, and WebMD will only convince you that your child could be suffering from every possible illness from the common cold to colon cancer. This is where iTriage steps in. iTriage is a free app that provides users with symptom information and offers advice about seeking medical attention. The app, created by ER physicians, can also provide you with the names and locations of the closest hospitals, emergency rooms and urgent care centers. It’s a godsend if you’re ever sick in an unfamiliar area.
Dark Sky is a handy app to have if your car breaks down and you’re in a race to get help before nightfall. Dark Sky lets you know precisely when the sun will sink and leave you in the black of night. It can also predict the weather for the next 24 hours, so if your car dies and you are alone under a cloudy sky, this app can help you decide whether you should hoof it to the gas station or wait for assistance where you are.
Flashlight provides you with the only thing you always seem to need but never have handy: why a flashlight, of course. The app provides light in the dark corners of the unexpected. Walking to your car at night after work? Flashlight will light the way. Dropped your house keys in the bushes outside your home? Flashlight will help you find them.
StreetSafe is a silent alert on your iPhone that signals to authorities that you are in danger. With one swipe, you can activate a silent alarm that tells the monitoring center to call police. It can also transmit your personal medical conditions and physical description to 911 operators. If you happen to be out alone and night and notice someone following you, you can also call a safety adviser through this app. This person will stay on the phone with you until you make it safely home.
Circle of 6
If you’ve ever worried that in the event of an emergency, the one person you call for help might not answer the phone, then Circle of 6 will alleviate that fear. Circle of 6 allows you to send out a pre-composed message to six predetermined people in your contacts. It is simple to activate, and with two taps of the screen, your location and SOS will be delivered to your circle. It’s a fantastic application for high school and college students and anyone who wants their whereabouts and circumstances known immediately by their most trusted contacts.
Through the wonders of technology, the little devices we used to only make phones calls with could now end up saving our lives—as long as you remember to grab it on your way out the door.
Written by Social Monsters
Not sure how to show your teen some love on Valentine’s Day? Fight the urge to smother, cuddle or coddle—especially not in front of his or her friends. Instead, gift something you know will make your son or daughter special and loved without being the embarrassing parent that you (apparently) are. These gift ideas will not only show your teen you care, but, who knows, maybe he or she will actually like what you pick (even if they don’t show it).
If your teen is a new driver, he or she already received the greatest gift of all time: their driver’s license. For Valentine’s Day, give them the gift of safety (and treat yourself to peace-of-mind) with the resqme tool, a vehicle safety essential. The small, yet powerful resqme is designed as a rescue device in the event of vehicle entrapment. Severe weather, a car crash or electronic malfunction can cause you or your loved ones to get trapped inside of a vehicle. If your youngster is ever caught in an adverse driving situation, the resqme is the ultimate lifesaver. With a simple pull of the blade guard clip, the sharp steel blade can slice through jammed seat belts or break side windows with its spring-loaded spike. It comes in a variety of colors and easily attaches to a key chain for easy access.
Girls’ Best Friend
Your teen queen might be too young to appreciate diamonds so treat her to girls’ other best friend: chocolate. A beautiful, festive basket filled with an assortment of decadent chocolates will make her feel like the royal you think she is. If your teen is 13 going 30, don’t settle for store-bought candies; this is about going the extra mile to give your daughter a gift she’d be proud to post on social media and share with her friends. For instance,FTD’s Godiva Sampler makes for a beautiful presentation. The simple, but elegant basket includes an assortment of wrapped milk chocolate truffles, wrapped dark chocolate truffles, a rich Godiva milk chocolate bar and chocolate-dipped cashews all wrapped up in a gift basket and topped with a gold bow for an added touch of class and sophistication for a young woman such as herself.
Let’s Hear it for the Boys
Boys will be boys, and, if they’re music lovers, ‘being boys’ likely means constantly blaring of his favorite music through the house at any and all hours. Save your eardrums and give your teen something worth turning up for. The Manhattan Freestyle Wireless Headphones are a perfect gift for the teenage boy who wants to enjoy his favorite band without being constrained by cords…or parents. Plus, the sleek, lightweight design rests comfortably on the head so he can enjoy hours of music from his smartphone, tablet, MP3 player, laptop computer or other Bluetooth-enabled device. The set is powered by a USB rechargeable battery that lasts up to eight hours on a single charge, plus it has built-in capabilities for customized sound control.
ABOUT THE FILM FESTIVAL
The 4th Global Road Safety Film Festival will be held at the Cinema Complex MEGARAMA in Casablanca-Morocco on 13 and 14 February 2015.
The Festival will be organized by Laser International Foundation (LIFE) in cooperation with La Prévention Routière Internationale (PRI) and the National Committee on the Prevention of Road Accidents of Morocco (CNPAC).
Over 80 films will be presented on key topics of the United Nations: road safety of pedestrians, helmet wearing, speeding, driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs, child restraint devices, road infrastructure, vehicle safety and post-crash response.
With great pleasure we would like to welcome you in Casablanca. We invite you to forward the enclosed information to your possible interested contacts.
For further information about the Festival please Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Writting by Robert May, Indiana State Police (Detective)
Robert May - Mary Kay Kidwell - Dr. Gordon Giesbrecht
The Indiana State Police Underwater Search and Recovery team along with the Indianapolis Fire Department and Gordon Giesbrecht, Ph.D. of the University of Manitoba filmed a segment with Good Morning America this winter on cold water immersions. Doctor Giesbrecht is a world renowned expert on surviving the cold. He has teamed up with the Indiana State Police and the Indianapolis Fire Department in the past. When ABC came to him requesting his expertise in their winter survival series he asked to do with ISP and IFD. The segment was filmed at Geist Reservoir in January. Garner’s wrecker Service donated a car for the dive team to drive onto to the ice. ABC Correspondent Matt Gutman drove the car onto to the ice where it broke through and he demonstrates how to escape. ABC flew producers Robert Zepeda in from Miami and Gary Wynn in from New York to produce the segment.
Master Diver Robert May says if you slide off the road into any type of water whether it is frozen or open water the method to survival is the same. Open your windows, undue your seatbelt, get out the window to the top of the car. Once out of the car you can decide to wait for help or make it to shore. If you have children in the car get the oldest out first. Do not use your cell phone while you are in the car to call 911. The time you waste talking to a dispatcher or a friend is the time you need to get out of the car.
Gordon Giesbrecht, Ph.D.
Associate Dean (External Relations)
Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management
102 Frank Kennedy Bldg.
University of Manitoba
Here is a story we just received from our friends of United Hatzalah:
“Your partner Yossi just sent me this photo of a road accident. He responded to on your ambucycle #353 and we wanted to share the story with you.
A young driver confused the gas and brake pedals. She completely lost control of the vehicle; it skidded violently and overturned. Thankfully, Yossi was actually on your ambucycle nearby, saw the accident and immediately swerved over to help. The woman was trapped in the car and your resourceful partner used a specialized resqme tool designed specifically for shattering windshields and slitting seatbelts to extricate the woman. Your caring partner reassured her as he gently checked her for injuries and took her vital signs – thankfully, she had escaped with only minor injuries. The traffic had built up behind the crash and it took over 15 minutes for an ambulance to get to the scene to transport her to the hospital.
Thanks for the United Hatzalah’s support , this woman received the care she needed in the minutes she needed it!”
By The Update Team
Version french: http://www.resqme.com/FR/blog/?p=711
Each state makes its own laws governing BAC levels for law enforcement action. In general, state BAC laws fall into three categories: zero tolerance; 0.08 BAC per se; and high BAC (0.08+).
All 50 states have enacted zero tolerance laws (primarily, per se laws at 0.02% BAC or lower) that make it illegal for drivers under age 21 to have any detectable amount of alcohol in their bodies. As of August
2005, all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, had enacted 0.08 BAC per se laws.
Additionally, as of January 2005, 32 states had enacted high BAC laws.
Fatalities in crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers have remained around 31% of all fatalities. In the U.S., the blood alcohol limit for driving is .08 g/dL and crashes with drivers testing at this level BAC or higher are considered alcohol-impaired crashes.
In 2012, fatalities in alcohol-impaired crashes
increased by 4.6% over 2011. Perhaps more alarming is that fatalities in alcohol-impaired crashes in which a driver had a BAC of .15 or higher (twice the legal limit) increased by 7.3% over 2011.
Drugs and driving
There is no federal per se law regarding driving under the influence of drugs. Drug per se laws are stated more so that it is illegal to drive with certain drugs in the system. However, not all states in the US have drug per se laws.
Given the differences in state collection and reporting of drug data, and the large amounts of missing data for the influence of drugs in crash scenarios, NHTSA’s data on drugs and crashes should be
interpreted within the constraints of a vast array of limitations. Of those drivers involved in fatal crashes in 2012 (45 337 drivers), 40% (18 120) of them were tested for drugs. Thirty-two percent
(5 765) of those tested for drugs were reported as having drugs in their system at the time of the fatal crash.
Distracted driving laws focus on the use of mobile electronic devices while driving. Each state in the US sets its own laws regarding distracted driving. As of April 2014, 12 States and the District of
Columbia (DC) prohibit all drivers from using hand-held cell phones while driving. Thirty-seven States and DC ban all cell phone use by novice drivers. Forty-three States and DC ban text messaging for all
In 2012, 3 328 people were killed on U.S. roadways, and an estimated additional 421 000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes that were reported to have involved distracted driving (FARS and GES). Of those people killed in distracted-driving-related crashes, 415 involved reports of a cell phone as a distraction (12% of fatalities in distraction-related crashes). Of those injured in distracteddriving-related crashes, 28 000 involved reports of a cell phone as a distraction (7% of injured people in distraction-related crashes). Ten percent of fatal crashes and 17 percent of the injury crashes in
2012 involved reports of distracted driving.
NHTSA considers a crash to be speeding-related if the driver was charged with a speeding-related offense, or if an officer indicated that racing, driving too fast for conditions, or exceeding the posted
speed limit was a contributing factor in the crash.
Speeding is one of the most prevalent factors contributing to traffic crashes. In 2012, speed was a contributing factor in 30 per cent of all fatal crashes, and 10 219 lives were lost in speeding-related
Speeding-related fatalities increased by 2 per cent from 10 001 in 2011, to 10 219 in 2012.
Speed limits in the United States are set by each state. The table below summarises speed limit ranges in the United States.
Seatbelts and helmets
Primary belt laws (PBLs) allow law enforcement to stop a driver solely for not wearing a seatbelt. As of January 2014, 33 States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have primary seatbelt laws for
front seat occupants. In 16 states, drivers must commit another driving offence before they can be stopped, thus the seatbelt law is referred to as a secondary law. One state has no belt use law –
primary or secondary – for adults. This state does, however, have a primary child passenger safety law that covers all drivers and passengers under 18.
In 2012, among fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants, more than half (52%) of those killed were unrestrained.
The NHTSA conducts a national seatbelt campaign each May, involving more than 10 000 state and local law enforcement agencies. As a result of stronger laws and high visibility enforcement, the
overall seatbelt rate is at an all-time high in the U.S. as reported through the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS). In 2013, seatbelt use reached 87%. Seatbelt use has shown an
increasing trend since 1995, accompanied by a steady decline in the percentage of unrestrained passenger vehicle (PV) occupant fatalities during daytime.
Motorcycle helmet laws are issued and enforced by the individual states; there is no national law requiring motorcycle helmet use. As of January 2014, 19 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto
Rico require helmet use by all operators and passengers. In 28 states, only a specific population segment is required to wear helmets. Three states have no motorcycle helmet use laws. The following
table shows the changes in motorcycle helmet usage since 1998.